Medical Glossary
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Radiation Oncologist A doctor who specializes in using radiation to treat disease.
Radiation Therapist A certified health professional trained on the equipment which delivers the radiation treatments.
Radiation Therapy Treatment with high-energy rays to kill cancer cells, also called radiotherapy. May be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy for many different tumors. The radiation may be given from outside the body (external radiation) or from within when radiation may be placed directly into or adjacent to the tumor (brachytherapy or internal radiation).
Radiation Therapy Simulation The planning stage of the radiation treatment where x-rays are taken to direct the radiation. This is the time when marks are drawn on the patient’s body to direct the treatments.
Radiologist A physician who specializes in the use of x-ray studies to diagnose disease.
Recreational Therapy A type of therapy designed to restore and maintain function utilizing recreational activities.
Recurrence The term used when cancer returns to the body after treatment has been completed. A local recurrence refers to the return of cancer to the original site of the cancer. A regional recurrence refers to the cancer returning to the area surrounding the original site of the cancer, usually in the lymph nodes. A distant recurrence refers to cancer that has spread to involve areas far from the original site of cancer. For example, a distant site of recurrence in colon cancer is the liver.
Red blood cell A blood cell that carries oxygen (fuel) from the lungs to all parts of the body.
Reduced Intensity Regimen Also called a “non-ablative transplant”, “mixed chimerism transplant” or a “mini transplant”. This type of transplant is an allogeneic transplant where the patient gets stem cells from a related or an unrelated matched donor. The goal is to give a moderate dose of chemotherapy to set up a mixed immune system. The new immune system will attack the cancer.
Regression Decrease in the size or amount of the cancer.
Rehabilitation The process of undergoing certain activities to restore a person's abilities to function.
Relapse The cancer has reappeared after being completely gone.
Remission Complete or partial disappearance of the signs and symptoms of your cancer. A complete remission occurs when there is no sign of cancer in your body. A partial remission is when the tumor has significantly decreased but is not completely gone.
Resection Surgery to remove a part of or the entire organ.
Resident A graduate of a medical/osteopathic/dental school serving an advanced period of graduate training. This may represent the first year of graduate training or any year thereafter.
Risk Factor Anything that increases an individual’s chance for developing a disease or complications from a treatment.